2.1.1 What is a domain name

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A Domain name (or domain) is a unique address on the Internet that allows users to easily find your site. Essentially, it is a human-readable way to identify computers and servers on a network. For example, google.com, wikipedia.org or your-site.com.ua are all domain names. Instead of using complex numeric IP addresses (for example, which are inconvenient for humans to use, domain names provide a convenient and memorable address for your resource.

Domain names are registered through accredited domain registrars and must be unique. This means that there cannot be two identical domain names on the Internet. For example, if someone has already registered example.com, then another person will not be able to register the same address.

Each domain name can be associated with the IP address of the server that hosts a specific site. When a user enters a domain name in the browser, the DNS (Domain Name System) translates that name into the corresponding IP address to load that site from the server and display its content in your browser.

A domain name performs several key functions:

  • Identification: a domain name serves as a unique identifier for your website on the Internet.
  • Branding: A well-chosen domain name helps in building and promoting a brand.
  • Convenience: A domain name is easier to remember than an IP address, making access to your site more convenient for users.

Domain classification

Domain names are classified into levels and domain zones, each of which has its own characteristics and registration rules. The main domain name levels include:

First level domain (domain zone)

A top-level domain (TLD) is the part of a domain name that immediately follows the last period. Examples of TLDs include .com, .org, .net, and country code domains such as .ua (Ukraine) and .de (Germany).

First-level domains can also be called domain zones. Each domain zone has its own administration, registration rules and its own domain lifecycle. In practice, this means that to register a domain in some zones you may need to meet additional requirements. For example, to register a domain in the .ua zone, you must have a trademark valid in Ukraine, the object of legal protection of which coincides with the desired domain address.

Second level domain (commercial domains)

Second Level Domain (SLD) is the part of the domain name that comes before the TLD. For example, in the domain example.com, the word example is a second-level domain.

In fact, second-level domains are commercial domains, potentially available for purchase to anyone. Typically, SLDs are registered by businesses, organizations and individuals to create their websites. For example, mystore.com.ua or bookshop.ua.

SLD registration is done through accredited registrars, and SLD owners have the right to create subdomains.

Third level domain (subdomains)

Subdomains are domains created by the owner of a second-level domain. They are free for the SLD owner and can be used for various purposes, such as creating separate sections of the site or different versions of the site for different languages. For example, the owner of the example.com domain can create shop.example.com or blog.example.com subdomains at no additional cost.

Tip: creating and managing subdomains is described in detail in our article How to create subdomains, auto-subdomains.

Choosing and registering a domain

Let’s say you need to host a website on the Internet and you need a domain name as its address. In this case, you need to decide on the desired address and register it with the help of a registrar, thus obtaining the rights to use this domain for the next calendar year.

Question: what to look for when choosing a domain name?
  • Relevant and easy to remember: The domain should reflect the essence of your business or contain keywords related to your content. It should also be easy to pronounce and memorable for users.

  • Size and Complexity: Avoid domain names that are too long or complex. The simpler and shorter the name, the easier it is to remember and enter into the address bar of the browser.

  • Domain zone: select the appropriate domain zone extension (.com, .ua, .shop, etc.) depending on your purpose.

Important: the cost, registration rules and life cycle differ significantly depending on the selected domain zone!

Tip: The registration process consists of checking the availability of the desired domain, creating its contacts, ordering and payment. All this is discussed in detail in our article How to choose and order a domain name.

Active domain management

After registering a domain name, it is important to understand the basic aspects of domain name management. For example, how to send it to hosting with your website or connect it to Google services. Most of these problems are solved using the worldwide DNS system.


Name servers (NS) play a key role in how browsers direct users to your site. Each domain must have name servers installed, which are responsible for resolving the domain name to the IP address of the server where your site is located. It is the name servers installed for the domain that have information about what the domain should open, where its mail should work from, whether it has subdomains, and so on.

Tip: The topic of name servers is described in more detail in our article Our NS servers. How to change the NS server of your domain.

DNS records

DNS records determine which services and servers are used by your domain. These can be A records (for specifying the IP address of your server), CNAME (for creating aliases), MX (for mail servers) and others. Typically, DNS records can be set using domain or hosting control panels, depending on your hosting provider.

Tip: The issue of DNS records and their changes is described in more detail in our article How to manage DNS records of a domain, how to direct a domain to an IP address .

Transfer or change of domain owner

Legally, the owner of a domain name is the person indicated during registration as the owner’s contact, and the registrar is the company where the initial registration of this domain was made.

If desired, both the owner and the registrar can be changed. In addition to standard security checks and domain hijack protection, each registrar is slightly different, so these scenarios need additional description:

Additionally: in addition to the rules of the registrars, when transferring you must also take into account the rules of the corresponding domain zones. You can check the domain zone rules for your domain using the online tool on our website.